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You already recently rated this item. The literature review serves two important function: For a deeper understanding of a method or procedure relating to either, you may wish to consult other books identified in the text or in the Bibliography.
One of the main differences between quantitative and qualitative research studies is in the area of variables. In order to fulfil the first purpose, you should identify and describe various theories relevant to your field; and specify gaps in existing knowledge in the area, recent advances in the area of study, current trends and so on. Both approaches have their place in research. Your focus may be the study of an issue, an association or a phenomenon per se; for example, the relationship between unemployment and street crime, smoking and cancer, or fertility and mortality, which is done on the basis of information collected from individuals, groups, communities or organisations.
Who would you consider to be an immigrant?
Now, obviously, this process is one in which nearly all people engage in the course of their daily lives. Sharing findings with stakeholders Involving stakeholders in evaluation Ethics in evaluation Summary Appendix: In the previous chapter, we established that concepts are highly subjective as an understanding of them varies from person to person.
You must Operationalise the concepts: As with your drive, for a research journey there are also two important decisions to make.
Research methodology : a step-by-step guide for beginners (Book, ) 
In this book the guidelines suggested for writing a research report encourage you to integrate these aspects. One way to decide what interests you most is to start with the process of elimination. Therefore it should contain the following information about your study Chapter As the ediion progresses, if needs be, issues or themes are added to this framework.
As mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, two of the broad functions of a literature review are 1 to provide a theoretical background to your study and 2 to enable you to contextualise your findings in relation to the existing body of knowledge in addition to refining your methodology.
Research methodology : a step-by-step guide for beginners
Other distinctions between quantitative and qualitative research are outlined in Table 2. Any other academic or occupational field can similarly be dissected into subfields and examined for a potential research problem. The tasks identified in circles are the intermediary steps that you need to complete to go from one step to another. The name field is required. History has shown that for a multiplicity of reasons the discussion of which is beyond the scope of this book people have used one method or another to control their fertility, resulting in lower fertility levels.
Now examine your objectives to ascertain the feasibility of achieving them through your research endeavour.
At the initial stage you only identify the main thrust of your study and some specific aspects which you want to find out about. A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. While going through the literature you should carefully and critically examine it with respect to the following aspects: The choice of indicators for a concept might vary with the researcher but those selected must have a logical link with the concept.
It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of clinical observations to explain and find answers for what you perceive, with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. Assume that we decide upon income and assets as the indicators. There are three sources that you can use to prepare a bibliography: You do not predetermine the exact nature and extent of the research problem you propose to find answers to.
The classification of the types of a study on the basis of these perspectives is not mutually exclusive: Through this review, many themes emerged, which became the basis of developing the theoretical framework for the study. One of the strengths of this book is that it offers a beginner a very specific set of step-by-step guidelines in one place despite the fear of being labelled as prescriptive.
There are specially prepared electronic databases in a number of disciplines.
What is the relationship between fertility and mortality? It is equally important to identify any gaps in your knowledge of relevant disciplines, such as statistics required for analysis.
The main sources for identifying literature are books, journals and the Internet. What is the effect of a health service on the control of a disease, or the home environment on educational achievement? You strive to maintain flexibility, openness and freedom to include any new ideas or exclude any aspect that you initially included but later consider not to be relevant. What contribution have you been able to make to the existing body of knowledge? The research design — 8.
The types of questions and the need to find answers to them will vary with the level at which you work in the organisation.